For readers interested in the future direction of critical disability studies, especially those looking to contribute to the field and want to know where there is exigence for research, Manifestos for the Future of Critical Disability Studies is an essential read. Presented in a collection of manifestos, and focused on a transdisciplinary approach to disability, the book offers a diversification of voices with each contributor sharing the key gaps that they see in critical disability studies. Through their curation, the collection's editors, Katie Ellis, Rosemarie Garland-Thomson, Mike Kent, and Rachel Robertson, offer a space for voices, both established and new, to be brought to the forefront of conversations surrounding disability through a transdisciplinary approach. Working together, the editors and the contributors use this collection as a call to action, inviting readers to learn about critical disability studies, highlighting key questions in the field, and offering solutions to alleviate material implications on those with disabilities.

In the introduction, the editors provide a rationale for the delivery of manifestos while simultaneously using select manifestos to trace the history of critical disability studies. Readers interested in learning more about the formation of the field will find this introduction useful. The authors begin the chapter with the assertion that "Manifestos provide a fulcrum for social change," which they then support by offering specific examples of manifestos that have shaped societal thought toward inclusivity and power. The manifestos that editors discuss in the introduction focus on many different social justice movements, from racial equality to women's rights, highlighting the interdisciplinary approach that this work takes. The authors arrive at and focus in on the UPIAS manifesto, which orients the reader into the work this transformative manifesto has done in shifting beyond a medicalized framework of disability. Highlighting the work the UPIAS manifesto has done allows the reader to understand the contributors' critiques of disability frameworks in their work. The remainder of the introduction focuses on a brief history of the formation of critical disability studies, provides a rationale for how Manifestos for the Future of Critical Disability Studies extends prior work done in the field, and emphasizes the capability manifestos have to create change.

Three parts comprise Manifestos for the Future of Critical Disability Studies, with part one being "Human Variation across Family and Community Life: A Knowledge Manifesto." The editors' careful organization of this section highlights the impressive scope of this collection. Rosemarie Garland-Thomson's "Critical Disability Studies: A Knowledge Manifesto" opens the first part and discusses the health sciences' past framing of disability as deviance. This history sets up the rest of part one, and the collection, by highlighting how critical disability studies is dedicated to dismantling this belief and by setting the stage for other contributors to demonstrate how one can combat the implications of this perception. The latter works extend Garland-Thomson's position by noting the specific ways that activists, academics, and allies are working to refute original, negative perceptions of disability. For instance, Washieka Torres' chapter, "Not Now but Right Now: Creating Advocates and Scholars," calls attention to disability unemployment rates, particularly in the educational setting and offers steps those who have power in the education system can take to create awareness and promote equality for those with disabilities, including encouraging students to become advocates for disability. Rachel Skoss offers another approach in her chapter, "Navigating 'the System' to Find Supports and Services for People with Developmental Disabilities: How Can Research Help Make This Journey Better?" Skoss, a parent of a child labeled with a developmental disorder, emphasizes the chaos parents can encounter when working with early intervention services and health, disability, and/or education services. Skoss explains that a key way to abate some of the chaos is for disability research to be useful for those who have disabilities and their families. She provides ways to achieve this: researchers must work with practitioners, those who have disabilities, and their allies; researchers must work with policymakers to provide the evidence they need; new programs must be developed and must be transparent to the public in order to determine effectiveness.

The contributors in part two, "Media, Technology, and Design," all write with a similar goal in mind: drawing attention to the relationship between technology and disability and calling for more interrogation surrounding the implications of technology on disability. The second part begins with Gerald Goggin's "Technology and Social Futures," in which he investigates the role technology plays in the future of disability. Goggin argues that though there has been research on the relationship between technology and disability, critical work has been slow to emerge. He offers three areas of critical work that need more attention in the field of critical disability studies: 1) Reimagining disability and technology for different worlds 2) Mapping power relations of technology, industry, markets, and law and policy and 3) Conceptualizing and activating disability technology rights. Following Goggin's work are chapters that point toward and narrow in on focus areas that require more investigation. Sarah Lewthwaite, David Sloan, and Sarah Horton's work, "A Web for All" argues that more research is needed on accessibility in digital environments, which is a belief that is echoed throughout part two with contributors calling attention to the naming of objects and digital design. Justin Brown and Scott Hollier take up this call to action in their chapter, "Interface Casting: Making the Digital Possible." One solution for accessibility issues proposed by Brown and Hollier is interface casting, in which "any electronically controlled environment or device can broadcast digital information regarding its operation to mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets" (65). Further, they offer a close analysis of an interface casting model, pointing toward the model's benefits and challenges. This chapter offers a model that researchers can employ to question the digital design and disability's implications, a concern present across all the chapters in part two.

The third and final part of the collection, "Theoretical Work," offers a wide range of chapters covering concepts from aging to agency and disability to engaging in critical disability praxis. Each chapter makes a useful contribution and calls for a close analysis and rethinking of the current field of critical disability studies and its history, especially the social models that have informed the field's formation. Serving as the first chapter in part three, Hailee M. Yoshizaki-Gibbons' chapter, "Engaging with Ageing: A Call for the Greying of Critical Disability Studies" advocates for the 'greying' of critical disability studies, which she sees as "a way to consider how critical disability studies might develop, grow, and mature through explorations of the intersections between ageing and disability" (180). Other contributors across part three offer different areas of critical disability studies that need revisited; for instance, Kathy Boxall's chapter, "Revisiting the Foundations of (Critical) Disability Studies," calls for an inclusive social model, which builds upon the UPIAS understanding of disability from 1976. Subini Annamma, Beth A. Ferri, and David J. Connor's chapter, "Cultivating and Expanding Disability Critical Race Theory (DisCrit)," advocates for "the intersectional framework integrating disability studies and critical race theory" (230). Annamma et al. argue that this framework can offer a more "critical and socially engaged" future for the field of critical disability studies (230). The final chapter of part three and the collection, Akemi Nishida's "Critical Disability Practice" advocates for a community-academia interdependent relationship in order to work against the disability rights movement that is primarily occupied by white, cis-heterosexual US citizens with physical disabilities. Nishida argues that by incorporating intersectional analyses into critical disability studies, scholars and advocates can see how ableism is related to other forms of social injustice. Placing Nishida's work at the end of the collection, the editors offer the reader a call to action, urging readers to pay attention to the need for intersectional research in critical disability studies.

In sum, Manifestos for the Future of Critical Disability Studies highlights the exigence of critical disability studies research through a transdisciplinary approach. This collection is especially useful for those new to the field of critical disability studies as it accessibly offers background into critical disability studies and shares key points of contention in the field. The editors' and the contributors' call to action provides a range of ways that scholars and activists can engage in critical disability studies. Collectively, the authors and the editors come together to give the reader an idea of the different directions critical disability studies must head if we want to address and combat the material consequences for those with disabilities.

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Copyright (c) 2021 Amber Hester Simpson

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Volume 1 through Volume 20, no. 3 of Disability Studies Quarterly is archived on the Knowledge Bank site; Volume 20, no. 4 through the present can be found on this site under Archives.

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